Implementing Standardized Work: Writing Standardized Work Forms (One Day Expert)
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Standardized work is considered a foundational tool in Lean organizations, so it was a key component in the creation of the SharedCare model. Standardized work is considered the best way to safely complete a task or activity to achieve the highest level of quality and desired outcome with the fewest possible resources.
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Historically, many problems within healthcare can be traced back to the lack of standardized processes. Without standardized processes, a risk for tremendous variation in practice exists, along with the likelihood that desired outcomes will not be achieved consistently.
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A standardized process informs care providers about an expectation for how to perform work, and it creates an opportunity to continuously and efficiently improve processes in dynamic and changing systems such as healthcare. Standardized work identifies the necessary steps to complete an activity or task and provides the rationale for why the step is essential.
The most effective standardized work is created by the people who do the work and, therefore, understand it best. In addition, when implementing standardized work, it must be supported and monitored by organizational leaders to achieve optimal results for patients. The SharedCare model was built on a foundation of standardized work created by direct patient care staff.
Identifying roles and responsibilities within the new nursing team model was essential because it required a mindset different from the primary nursing model. Clear role delineation, outlined in a standardized work document, helped staff perform the right work at the right time for each patient. It also increased the opportunity for staff members to consistently work at the top of their license and reduced the number of interruptions care providers experienced. Standardized work also provided a mechanism for structured communication for team huddles that occur three times during every hour shift.
During each huddle, key points are addressed to ensure that all team members have pertinent patient information throughout the shift, that patient-specific goals and plans of care are identified and achieved, and that successful loop closure of delegated tasks or escalation of patient-related issues occur well before the end of the shift.
Huddles, guided by standardized work, created communication connections that had been lacking in the previous model of care. Standardized bedside handoff processes also were created. The standardized nursing shift report ensures that relevant and pertinent information is always exchanged between off-going and oncoming nurses. Information is organized so that nurses participate in a standardized process that is thorough and captures key quality and safety concerns, as well as patient-specific goals and discharge planning information.
It is also efficient. The use of an andon in the SharedCare model has created a safe way for staff members to verbally identify when their current workload has exceeded their ability to complete work in a safe or timely manner. Multiple times throughout the shift, staff members declare their workload status as green, yellow or red.
Green signals that the staff member is caught up and has the ability to help others if needed. Yellow identifies a staff member who is able to complete his or her own work but is unable to assist another team member. Red signifies a need for assistance. The use of the red, yellow and green andons has promoted direct and clear communication and fostered teamwork and camaraderie. The shift to the SharedCare model has been a cultural change for patient care staff and has required nursing leaders to work differently as well. The huddle board also promotes a dialogue about progress with unit-based problem solving initiatives.
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SharedCare units track specific daily indicators that align with organizational strategic goals. Daily indicator results are displayed on the unit, updated every shift and are reviewed during huddle every 12 hours to provide a real-time snapshot of unit performance. This helps staff members recognize the impact of their work on goals.
Verification and validation of standardized work occurs daily on all SharedCare units. Verification is the process of ensuring that staff members perform work according to the standard. It provides an opportunity for unit leadership, usually the charge nurse or manager, to coach staff members to the standard when it is not being followed. Validation of standardized work occurs when unit leaders perform standard work themselves to ensure accuracy and make adjustments as needed. Each LMS tool promotes effective communication and problem-solving. This has created a safe environment for staff members to be coached by making expectations clear and maintaining focus on meeting these expectations.
SharedCare has led to improved quality of care and overall patient experience and satisfaction.
It has also resulted in financial savings. Quality improvements achieved with the SharedCare model on the pilot unit included a reduction in the fall rate from 7. Financial outcomes included reductions in RN turnover, overtime and salary expenses per unit of service.
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SharedCare has been implemented on 10 additional inpatient units since January While SharedCare continues to stabilize and become the care delivery norm throughout the organization, overall improvements have occurred in the fall rate, nurse turnover and staff engagement scores. The organizational fall rate has plummeted from higher than 4 to less than 3.
As a result, nurse turnover rates have improved. The organizational employee engagement scores also increased significantly over Healthcare leaders across the nation have recognized the need to redesign care delivery models. The difference between these two approaches is not the goal itself, but rather the prime approach to achieving it. The implementation of smooth flow exposes quality problems that already existed, and thus waste reduction naturally happens as a consequence.
The advantage claimed for this approach is that it naturally takes a system-wide perspective, whereas a waste focus sometimes wrongly assumes this perspective. Both lean and TPS can be seen as a loosely connected set of potentially competing principles whose goal is cost reduction by the elimination of waste.
The disconnected nature of some of these principles perhaps springs from the fact that the TPS has grown pragmatically since as it responded to the problems it saw within its own production facilities. Thus what one sees today is the result of a 'need' driven learning to improve where each step has built on previous ideas and not something based upon a theoretical framework.
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From this perspective, the tools are workarounds adapted to different situations, which explains any apparent incoherence of the principles above. Lean implementation emphasizes the importance of optimizing work flow through strategic operational procedures while minimizing waste and being adaptable. However, adaptability is often constrained, and therefore may not require significant investment. More importantly, all of these concepts have to be acknowledged by employees who develop the products and initiate processes that deliver value. The cultural and managerial aspects of lean are arguably more important than the actual tools or methodologies of production itself.
There are many examples of lean tool implementation without sustained benefit, and these are often blamed on weak understanding of lean throughout the whole organization. Lean aims to enhance productivity by simplifying the operational structure enough to understand, perform and manage the work environment. To achieve these three goals simultaneously, one of Toyota's mentoring methodologies loosely called Senpai and Kohai which is Japanese for senior and junior , can be used to foster lean thinking throughout the organizational structure from the ground up. The closest equivalent to Toyota's mentoring process is the concept of " Lean Sensei ," which encourages companies, organizations, and teams to seek third-party experts that can provide advice and coaching.
Most of the basic goals of lean manufacturing and waste reduction were derived from Benjamin Franklin through documented examples. Poor Richard's Almanack says of wasted time, "He that idly loses 5 s.http://new.urbanreef.com/nele-track-smartphone.php
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A pin a-day is a groat a-year. Save and have. Again Franklin's The Way to Wealth says the following about carrying unnecessary inventory.
You expect they will be sold cheap, and, perhaps, they may [be bought] for less than they cost; but, if you have no occasion for them, they must be dear to you. Remember what Poor Richard says, 'Buy what thou hast no need of, and ere long thou shalt sell thy necessaries. The accumulation of waste and energy within the work environment was noticed by motion efficiency expert Frank Gilbreth , who witnessed the inefficient practices of masons who often bend over to gather bricks from the ground. The introduction of a non-stooping scaffold, which delivered the bricks at waist level, allowed masons to work about three times as quickly, and with the least amount of effort.
Frederick Winslow Taylor , the father of scientific management , introduced what are now called standardization and best practice deployment. In Principles of Scientific Management , , Taylor said: "And whenever a workman proposes an improvement, it should be the policy of the management to make a careful analysis of the new method, and if necessary conduct a series of experiments to determine accurately the relative merit of the new suggestion and of the old standard.
And whenever the new method is found to be markedly superior to the old, it should be adopted as the standard for the whole establishment. Taylor also warned explicitly against cutting piece rates or, by implication, cutting wages or discharging workers when efficiency improvements reduce the need for raw labor: " Shigeo Shingo , the best-known exponent of single minute exchange of die and error-proofing or poka-yoke, cites Principles of Scientific Management as his inspiration.
American industrialists recognized the threat of cheap offshore labor to American workers during the s, and explicitly stated the goal of what is now called lean manufacturing as a countermeasure. Henry Towne, past President of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers , wrote in the Foreword to Frederick Winslow Taylor's Shop Management , "We are justly proud of the high wage rates which prevail throughout our country, and jealous of any interference with them by the products of the cheaper labor of other countries.
To maintain this condition, to strengthen our control of home markets, and, above all, to broaden our opportunities in foreign markets where we must compete with the products of other industrial nations, we should welcome and encourage every influence tending to increase the efficiency of our productive processes.
Henry Ford initially ignored the impact of waste accumulation while developing his mass assembly manufacturing system. Charles Buxton Going wrote in Ford, in My Life and Work ,  provided a single-paragraph description that encompasses the entire concept of waste:. Poor arrangement of the workplace—a major focus of the modern kaizen—and doing a job inefficiently out of habit—are major forms of waste even in modern workplaces.
Ford also pointed out how easy it was to overlook material waste. A former employee, Harry Bennett, wrote:. In other words, Ford saw the rust and realized that the steel plant was not recovering all of the iron. Ford's early success, however, was not sustainable. As James P. Womack and Daniel Jones pointed out in "Lean Thinking", what Ford accomplished represented the "special case" rather than a robust lean solution. This was made clear by Ford's precipitous decline when the company was forced to finally introduce a follow-on to the Model T.
Design for Manufacture DFM is a concept derived from Ford which emphasizes the importance of standardizing individual parts as well as eliminating redundant components in My Life and money. Decades later, the renowned Japanese quality guru, Genichi Taguchi , demonstrated that this "goal post" method of measuring was inadequate.
He showed that "loss" in capabilities did not begin only after exceeding these tolerances, but increased as described by the Taguchi Loss Function at any condition exceeding the nominal condition. This became an important part of W. Edwards Deming 's quality movement of the s, later helping to develop improved understanding of key areas of focus such as cycle time variation in improving manufacturing quality and efficiencies in aerospace and other industries.
While Ford is renowned for his production line, it is often not recognized how much effort he put into removing the fitters' work to make the production line possible. Previous to the use, Ford's car's components were fitted and reshaped by a skilled engineer at the point of use, so that they would connect properly. Toyota's development of ideas that later became lean may have started at the turn of the 20th century with Sakichi Toyoda , in a textile factory with looms that stopped themselves when a thread broke.
This became the seed of autonomation and Jidoka. Toyota's journey with just-in-time JIT may have started back in when it moved from textiles to produce its first car. Kiichiro Toyoda , founder of Toyota Motor Corporation, directed the engine casting work and discovered many problems in their manufacturing.
He decided he must stop the repairing of poor quality by intense study of each stage of the process.